**Concentration terms class 11**

**Complete information on “concentration terms class 11”**.** **Concentration is widely used concept which is famous everywhere. It is relatively used the field of Chemistry and Related Fields . It is a relative file do measuring things that How much a given substances in present when mixed with other substances. This application can be applicable to any sort of Chemical Mixture. Mostly this type of things are used in mainly related to Solutions. It can be used where a Amount of Solute dissolved in a solvent . To Concentrate a Solution one can add more solute or can also reduce the amount of solvent . At a point a situation comes when no further solvent is dissolved in the Solution. At this point point when this thing happen then it is said to be known as Saturated. If additional solution is added to the Solution when it will not get dissolve. Instead if we try to dissolve or phase separation will be occurred and will also lead a Coexisting Phases or a Suspension. The Points of Saturation also depends of many variable which are known as ambient temperature and the precise chemical nature of the solvent and solute. The Concentration of the Solution both Qualitatively and Quantitatively will be expressed in these equations . Know the **concentration terms class 11 **with video lecture like **NEET, IIT JEE video lectures.**

Here are some table of Content which are compulsory and need to be explained if talking about **concentration terms class 11 –**

**1. Qualitative notation**

**2. Quantitative notation**

**2.1. Mass percentage**

** 2.2. Mass-volume percentage**

** 2.3. Volume-volume percentage**

** 2.4. Molarity**

** 2.5. Molality**

** 2.6. Normality**

** 2.7. Formal**

** 2.8. Parts-per” notation**

** 3. Techniques used to determine concentration**

** 4. Table of concentration measures**

**Qualitative notation** – Qualitatively Solutions which have low concentration are often described as Dilute or Weak.The Solutions which have high concentration are often described as Concentrated or Strong. The more concentrated solution as a Chromatic Solution, the more intensely colored it is.

These kinds of Glasses contain red dye Demonstration Quantitative changes within the Concentration. The Concentration on the Left-hand side is weaker as compared to a stronger solution on the right-hand side.

**Quantitative notation – **Quantitative notation of concentration is more informative and useful from a scientific point of view. There is a number of ways for different expressions of the Concentration. The Most Common Concentrations are listed below. Many substances units of concentration also require measurement of the Substance’s volume. This Substances unit will also require all following measurement to be a standard state temperature and pressure at 25 degree Celsius as well at the Atmospheric Pressure of 1.

**Mass Percentage** – Mass Percentage Denotes the Mass of % in the mixture as a percentage of the mass of the Entire Mixture. For Example: If there a bottle and it contains 40 Grams of Ethanol and 60 Grams of Water. After all this, the bottle will contain 40% Ethanol by mass. Commercial concentrated aqueous reagents like Acid and Bases are also often labeled in Concentration of weight of the Percentage with the specific gravity are also listed. It is also referred to as Weight-Wight Percentage.

**Mass-Volume Percentage (Weight Volume Percentage)** – The Mass-Volume Percentage is denoted by the Mass of a Substances mixed in a Mixture as a Percentage of the Volume of the Whole Mixture. Mass-Volume Percentage is often used as a Solution which is made from Solid reagents. It is the Mass of the Solute Grams which is multiplied by one hundred and divided by the volume of the solution in milliliters.

**Molarity :** It is denoted by the moles of a given substance (Per Litre) of the Solution. For example: If 4.0 liters of liquid contains 2.0 moles of dissolved particles it consist a solution of 0.5 M. Such a solution is called as “0.5 molars.” (Working with moles will be very advantageous, as they approve measurement of the total number of particles in a solution, irrespective of their weight and volume. This is often more useful when performing stoichiometric calculations.). You can See molar solution for further information.

**Molality **: It is denoted by the number of moles of a given substance per kilogram of solvent. For example 2.0 kilograms of solvent, consist of 1.0 moles of dissolved particles, it also consist a molality of 0.5 mol/kg. This kind of solution may be called as “0.5 molal.” The advantage of molality and it does not change with the temperature. It also deals with the mass of solvent rather than the volume of solution. It states that the Volume increases with increase in temperature resulting in a decrease in molarity. Molality of a solution is always constant irrespective of the physical conditions like temperature and pressure.

**Normality** : Normality is a kind of concept related to molarity.. It is usually applied to acid-base solutions and reactions. For acid-base reactions, the equivalent is the mass of acid or base that can accept or can donate exactly one mole of protons (H+ ions). Normally it is also used for redox reactions. In this case the equivalent is the quantity of oxidizing or reducing agent that can accept or furnish one mole of electrons. Whereas a molarity measures the number of particles per litre of solution. It also measures the number of equivalents per litre of solution. In practice, this simply means one multiplies the molarity of a solution by the valence of the ionic solute. A bit more complex for redox reactions.

**Formal** – The formal is denoted by (F). It is another measure of concentration which is similar to molarity. It is rarely used. It is calculated which is based on the formula weights of chemicals per liter of solution. The difference between formal and molar concentrations is that the formal concentration indicates moles of the original chemical formula in solution and without regard for the species that actually exist in solution. Molar concentration, on the other hand, is the concentration of species in solution. For example: if one dissolves sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a liter of water, the compound dissociates into the Na+ and CO32- ions. Some of the CO32- reacts with the water to form HCO3– and H2CO3. If the pH of the solution is low, there are practically no Na2CO3 left in the solution. So, although we have added 1 mol of Na2CO3 to the solution, it does not contain 1 M of that substance. However, if one says that the solution contains 1 F of Na2CO3.

**Parts-per” notation:** The parts-per notation is used for highly low concentrations. This is often used to signify the relative abundance of trace elements in the Earth’s crust, trace elements in forensics or other analyses, or levels of pollutants in the environment.

**Parts per hundred (denoted by ‘%’ and very rarely ‘pph’):** – It denotes one particle of a given substance for every 99 other particles. This is the common percent of which 1 part in 102.

**Parts per thousand (denoted by ‘‰’ [the per mil symbol], and occasionally ‘ppt’):** It is denoted by one particle of a given substance for every 999 other particles. This is roughly equivalent to one drop of ink in a cup of water, or one second per 17 minutes. ‘Parts per thousand’ is often used to record the salinity of seawater. 1 part in 103.

**Parts per million (‘ppm’):** It is denotes by one particle of a given substance for every 999,999 other particles. This is roughly equivalent to one drop of ink in a 40 gallon drum of water, or one second per 280 hours. 1 part in 106.

**Parts per billion (‘ppb’):** It is denoted one particle of a given substance for every 999,999,999 other particles. This is roughly equivalent to one drop of ink in a canal lock full of water, or one second per 32 years. 1 part in 109.

**Parts per trillion (‘ppt’):** It is denoted by one particle of a given substance for every 999,999,999,999 other particles. This is roughly equivalent to one drop of ink in an Olympic-sized swimming pool, or one second every 320 centuries. 1 part in 1012.

**Parts per quadrillion (‘ppq’):** It is denoted by one particle of a given substance for every 999,999,999,999,999 other particles. This is equivalent to a drop of ink in a medium-sized lake, or one second every 32,000 millennia. There are no known analytical techniques that can measure with this degree of accuracy; nevertheless, it is still used in some mathematical models of toxicology and epidemiology. 1 part in 1015.

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